Apart from the classic anti-doping methods that include urine and blood test of PEDs and their metabolites, there are specific laboratory evaluations (blood tests) that could reveal possible use of chemical enhancement. There exams involve hormonal, biochemical tests. An experienced biopathologist and sport medicine doctor, would clarify if there is any possibility of drug abuse. These markers are the following:
-Hematocrit: It is well known that AAS induce erythrocytosis and act against anemia. EPO is released from renal cortex and red bone marrow is stimulated in order to produce erythrocytes.
-Transaminemia: AAS and 17 alkylated especially, are hepatotoxic. Liver increases its activity trying to brake down every substance that enters hepatic parenchyma. ALT & AST are elevated in serum and this is the first step of liver stress, named as pharmaceutical hepatitis.
-Lipids: High Density and Low Density Lipoproteins, are manufactured in liver parenchme. Therefore, each time pharmaceutical hepatitis occurs, liver lipoproteins are affected. That is the so called atheromatic index distortion and atherogenesis occurs.
-Coagulation Factors: INR & APTT are coagulator factors synthesized in liver as well. So when liver is under stress, their biosynthesis is also affected. Prolonged bleeding is what happens when INR, APTT are increased.
-FSH, LH: Homeostasis happens in order to create balance. When ever there is exogenous administration of AAS, HPTA is suppressed and hypothalamus-hypophysis stop to produce endogenous testosterone-sperm production.
-Total, Free Testosterone: When AAS are used either orally or injected, TT & FT would raise. AAS are synthetic derivatives of testosterone.
-Somatomedin C: When Somatropin-Human Growth Hormone is used, liver secretes insulin like growth factor, known as IGF1. Since GH has fluctuations within the day, depending from exercise, REM sleep, use of supplementation, type of nutrition, Peptide C serum levels would reveal a possible exogenous use of hGH.
Concerning the credibility of a particular substance:
We could identify from specific blood tests if the particular AAS is original. DHT derivatives (oxandrolone, methenolone, stanozolol) and synthetic forms of DHT (drostanolone, mesterolone). We know that DHT derivatives do not aromatize. Therefore, if beta estradiol (E2) is elevated, then we assume that the particular AAS is faked. So instead of oxandrolone, it could have being methandrostenolone, or instead of methenolone, nandrolone could be a possible case. In case stanozolol suspension aromatizes, then most likely it is testosterone suspension solution. In some cases nandrolone elevates prolactin. Therefore, if someone uses boldenone and prolactin is elevated, then it is possible that equipose is faked by deca. Other indications include the shut down of HPTA in every AAS use and dramatic elevation of TT, FT. The disadvantage of this method is that each substance has to be measured separately. Stacking different AAS would not help to clarify if the chemical is original.